Java VS Kotlin benchmarks

Current benchmark data was generated on Fri May 20 2022, full log can be found HERE

CONTRIBUTIONS are WELCOME!

[x86_64][2 cores] Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8370C CPU @ 2.80GHz (Model 106)

* -m in a file name stands for multi-threading or multi-processing

* -i in a file name stands for direct intrinsics usage. (Usage of simd intrinsics via libraries is not counted)

* -ffi in a file name stands for non-stdlib FFI usage

* (You may find time < time(user) + time(sys) for some non-parallelized programs, the overhead is from GC or JIT compiler, which are allowed to take advantage of multi-cores as that's more close to real-world scenarios.)

binarytrees

Input: 18

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 2.java 696ms 2.2ms 409.6MB 713ms 83ms openjdk 19
java 2.java 732ms 12ms 407.3MB 713ms 120ms openjdk 18.0.1
kotlin 1.kt 733ms 92ms 842.9MB 710ms 130ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 2.java 1014ms 30ms 680.5MB 813ms 113ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2.java 1293ms 8.5ms 1082.9MB 893ms 617ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
kotlin 1.kt 3949ms 18ms 514.4MB 3847ms 87ms kotlin/native 1.6.21

Input: 15

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1.kt 133ms 2.6ms 109.5MB 117ms 20ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 2.java 165ms 4.3ms 107.3MB 167ms 37ms openjdk 19
java 2.java 170ms 6.4ms 107.5MB 173ms 20ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 296ms 1.4ms 243.7MB 183ms 150ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
kotlin 1.kt 304ms 2.8ms 62.2MB 283ms 3ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
java 2.java 495ms 4.1ms 170.5MB 243ms 27ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

edigits

Input: 250001

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1-m.java 760ms 90ms 208.5MB 1317ms 83ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 933ms 37ms 465.4MB 1367ms 287ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 960ms 60ms 203.4MB 1720ms 73ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 1076ms 28ms 279.7MB 1337ms 93ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

Input: 100000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1-m.java 439ms 25ms 116.5MB 747ms 40ms openjdk 19
java 1-m.java 450ms 68ms 131.1MB 740ms 43ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 522ms 30ms 213.8MB 750ms 147ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 718ms 6.1ms 187.5MB 653ms 57ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

fannkuch-redux

Input: 11

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1-m.java 1694ms 12ms 115.5MB 3200ms 47ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 1-m.java 1739ms 18ms 40.9MB 3257ms 50ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 1764ms 64ms 40.9MB 3373ms 13ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 1777ms 17ms 41.6MB 3387ms 23ms openjdk 19

Input: 10

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1-m.java 270ms 8.0ms 39.6MB 433ms 27ms openjdk 19
java 1-m.java 274ms 9.9ms 40.7MB 453ms 10ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 302ms 5.9ms 40.7MB 427ms 53ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 590ms 20ms 98.1MB 440ms 30ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

fasta

Input: 2500000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 4.java 506ms 1.2ms 42.0MB 553ms 20ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 4.java 515ms 4.6ms 41.1MB 577ms 13ms openjdk 19
java 4.java 543ms 3.4ms 38.8MB 560ms 53ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 4.java 930ms 2.1ms 126.2MB 910ms 47ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

Input: 250000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 4.java 141ms 5.7ms 39.0MB 170ms 7ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 4.java 145ms 4.3ms 39.1MB 167ms 13ms openjdk 19
java 4.java 181ms 3.0ms 40.2MB 170ms 47ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 4.java 464ms 4.5ms 89.8MB 187ms 23ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

helloworld

Input: QwQ

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1.kt 2.5ms 0.4ms 1.2MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 1.kt 66ms 2.9ms 40.8MB 52ms 8ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1.java 71ms 3.3ms 59.7MB 64ms 14ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 1.java 75ms 4.6ms 38.7MB 76ms 6ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 78ms 3.9ms 38.4MB 76ms 6ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 115ms 2.8ms 38.3MB 76ms 52ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

knucleotide

Input: 2500000_in

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 3-m.java 1452ms 20ms 113.0MB 2687ms 40ms openjdk 19
java 3-m.java 1455ms 10ms 113.4MB 2647ms 47ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 3-m.java 1515ms 56ms 197.1MB 2773ms 63ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 3-m.java 2013ms 36ms 174.4MB 3573ms 137ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

Input: 250000_in

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 3-m.java 447ms 47ms 83.3MB 730ms 33ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 3-m.java 484ms 12ms 95.1MB 833ms 30ms openjdk 19
java 3-m.java 497ms 47ms 97.6MB 767ms 77ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 3-m.java 1174ms 140ms 173.3MB 1777ms 53ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

mandelbrot

Input: 5000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 19
java 2.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 19
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 2.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

Input: 1000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 2.java 764ms 19ms 539.3MB 980ms 110ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 780ms 7.5ms 436.8MB 893ms 83ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 802ms 12ms 404.2MB 913ms 93ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 871ms 13ms 565.4MB 993ms 170ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 1085ms 6.8ms 319.6MB 880ms 80ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2.java 1416ms 25ms 1046.7MB 1007ms 677ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 1467ms 5.1ms 1058.4MB 983ms 703ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

merkletrees

Input: 17

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1.kt 461ms 8.2ms 362.9MB 450ms 80ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1.java 489ms 6.8ms 286.1MB 513ms 60ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 491ms 9.7ms 288.9MB 507ms 63ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 870ms 1.9ms 365.7MB 693ms 97ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 1.java 952ms 3.7ms 751.8MB 610ms 470ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
kotlin 1.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21

Input: 15

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1.kt 178ms 1.5ms 220.8MB 160ms 47ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1.java 215ms 3.7ms 170.3MB 240ms 33ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 218ms 2.5ms 172.0MB 227ms 43ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 422ms 10.0ms 352.5MB 247ms 223ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
kotlin 1.kt 560ms 1.8ms 62.4MB 537ms 10ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
java 1.java 585ms 6.4ms 245.8MB 370ms 73ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

nbody

Input: 5000000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1.java 551ms 5.5ms 40.5MB 567ms 13ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 554ms 3.0ms 39.8MB 567ms 10ms openjdk 19
kotlin 1.kt 570ms 1.1ms 43.1MB 583ms 13ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
kotlin 1n.kt 583ms 1.1ms 1.1MB 570ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
java 1.java 602ms 0.9ms 40.9MB 573ms 53ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 856ms 5.8ms 83.0MB 570ms 23ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2.java 1864ms 6.1ms 544.3MB 1893ms 117ms openjdk 19
java 2.java 1934ms 11ms 547.2MB 1927ms 157ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 2548ms 12ms 1221.8MB 1943ms 790ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

Input: 500000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1n.kt 61ms 0.3ms 1.1MB 50ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 1.kt 134ms 4.0ms 43.2MB 143ms 17ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1.java 135ms 3.2ms 40.6MB 147ms 17ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 136ms 2.9ms 41.5MB 147ms 17ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 188ms 6.9ms 38.4MB 160ms 53ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 2.java 410ms 4.1ms 337.4MB 470ms 83ms openjdk 19
java 2.java 418ms 12ms 322.7MB 483ms 73ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 452ms 2.8ms 88.4MB 170ms 23ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2.java 668ms 2.0ms 471.8MB 523ms 297ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

nsieve

Input: 12

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 2.java 927ms 2.1ms 48.9MB 960ms 23ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 928ms 5.3ms 50.1MB 963ms 17ms openjdk 19
java 2.java 945ms 3.6ms 47.6MB 930ms 57ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 1022ms 23ms 106.6MB 980ms 80ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 1344ms 124ms 81.9MB 1363ms 27ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 1446ms 54ms 80.8MB 1473ms 17ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1-m.java 1501ms 185ms 169.4MB 2260ms 57ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2-m.java 1861ms 8.6ms 131.2MB 3433ms 53ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

Input: 10

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1.java 291ms 1.2ms 57.3MB 267ms 63ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 303ms 5.3ms 57.6MB 337ms 7ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 305ms 8.1ms 59.0MB 327ms 20ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 308ms 1.8ms 43.1MB 343ms 13ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 311ms 1.2ms 46.3MB 357ms 7ms openjdk 19
java 2.java 335ms 1.3ms 43.4MB 330ms 50ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
java 1.java 645ms 7.3ms 138.8MB 467ms 47ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2.java 927ms 5.2ms 131.1MB 1097ms 43ms graal/jvm 17.0.3

pidigits

Input: 8000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 19
java 1.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
kotlin 1.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
kotlin 1n.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 2n.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21

Input: 4000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 1.java 1363ms 13ms 396.9MB 1753ms 97ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
kotlin 1.kt 1456ms 23ms 227.6MB 1820ms 50ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1.java 1532ms 15ms 240.8MB 2047ms 80ms openjdk 19
java 1.java 1539ms 11ms 250.8MB 1873ms 60ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 1.java 1946ms 0.8ms 933.1MB 1893ms 633ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1
kotlin 1n.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 2n.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21

regex-redux

Input: 2500000_in

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 3.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 3.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 3.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 19
java 3.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

Input: 250000_in

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 3.java 1053ms 6.1ms 110.5MB 1383ms 37ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 3.java 1068ms 26ms 107.7MB 1407ms 37ms openjdk 19
java 3.java 1089ms 3.5ms 193.4MB 1453ms 70ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 3.java 1162ms 13ms 159.2MB 1340ms 123ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

spectral-norm

Input: 8000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 2-m.java 4196ms 119ms 114.4MB 8067ms 43ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk 19
java 2.java timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

Input: 4000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 2-m.java 1250ms 41ms 113.4MB 2290ms 43ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2-m.java 1869ms 283ms 40.1MB 3540ms 17ms openjdk 19
java 2-m.java 2399ms 256ms 38.9MB 4587ms 13ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2-m.java 2632ms 59ms 38.7MB 4990ms 53ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

Input: 2000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
java 2-m.java 550ms 46ms 39.9MB 977ms 10ms openjdk 19
java 2-m.java 719ms 15ms 40.3MB 1293ms 23ms openjdk 18.0.1
java 2.java 745ms 21ms 103.0MB 733ms 23ms graal/jvm 17.0.3
java 2-m.java 782ms 4.4ms 39.0MB 1343ms 57ms openjdk/zgc 18.0.1

coro-prime-sieve

Input: 4000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1.kt 2944ms 38ms 157.9MB 3853ms 60ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1-m.java 3243ms 64ms 199.4MB 6117ms 97ms loom 19
kotlin 2-m.kt 3273ms 617ms 187.2MB 6243ms 67ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
kotlin 1.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 2-m.kt timeout 0.0ms 0.0MB 0ms 0ms kotlin/native 1.6.21

Input: 1000

lang code time stddev peak-mem mem time(user) time(sys) compiler compiler/runtime
kotlin 1-m.kt 689ms 63ms 100.4MB 1230ms 27ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2
java 1-m.java 731ms 33ms 110.8MB 1270ms 53ms loom 19
kotlin 2-m.kt 848ms 12ms 70.4MB 1487ms 23ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 1.kt 1044ms 5.6ms 32.7MB 1030ms 7ms kotlin/native 1.6.21
kotlin 2-m.kt 1092ms 73ms 106.9MB 1977ms 57ms kotlin/jvm 17.0.2